权利所有者的知识产权

注意: 以下信息不包含法律建议。如果您对自己的 IP 权利或他人的 IP 权利有疑问,应咨询律师。

亚马逊致力于确保商品不会违反或侵犯版权所有者的知识产权 (IP)。

如果您是拥有注册商标的版权所有者,那么您可能有资格在亚马逊品牌注册中注册您的品牌。

亚马逊品牌注册可提供功能强大的工具的访问权,包括提供专有文字和图片搜索、基于您的可疑知识产权侵权报告进行自动预测,以及提高带有您品牌名称的商品信息的权限。要了解更多信息并开始注册流程,请点击此处。

要了解有关知识产权的更多信息,请联系您当地的知识产权局或律师。

IP 的主要类型

A.商标

商标是指公司用来识别其商品或服务并将之与其他公司的商品和服务区分开来的文字、符号或设计(如风格化的品牌名称或徽标)。一般来说,商标法旨在防止买家对商品或服务的来源产生混淆。

商标所有者通常会在特定国家/地区的商标局(如美国专利商标局)进行注册来保护商标。 在某些情况下,即使某标志从未在特定国家/地区的商标局注册,个人或公司也可能仅凭在商业应用中使用该标志的行为获得其商标权。这些权利称为“普通法”商标权利,可能受到更多限制。

示例: 商标通常以商品详情页面上发布的商品和品牌名称的形式显示在亚马逊的商品详情页面上。例如,亚马逊商标“Pinzon”出现在如下所示商品详情页面的品牌价值部分中的商品名称上方。

ASIN 级别: 如果亚马逊上的商品或商品包装贴有您的商标,但您并未生产该商品,那么您可以举报整个 ASIN 或整个商品详情页面存在商标侵权行为。

卖家级别: 如果您认为某个卖家发布的特定商品侵犯了您的商标权,那么您可以举报该商品存在侵权。但是,如果您只是举报某件商品,则预期对应的商品详情页面和 ASIN 仍保持有效。当您举报商品而非整个 ASIN 时,您只是提及商品存在侵权行为,而不是整个 ASIN 或商品详情页面存在侵权。提供带有效订单编号的测试购买有助于支持您的举报。

商品详情页面: 如果您的商标在商品详情页面上被使用,但所售商品并非您的商品,那么可以举报此商品详情页面上商标的使用存在侵权行为。

如果您举报的商标仅用于表明与您商品的兼容性,我们可能会拒绝您提交的通知。

B.版权

版权旨在保护原创作品,如视频、电影、歌曲、书籍、音乐作品、视频游戏和绘画等。通常,版权法旨在激励为了公众利益而创作原创作品。要获得版权保护,作品必须是由作者创作的,且必须具有一定程度的创新性。原创作品的作者通常拥有该作品的版权。

在某些国家/地区,版权所有者可以在特定国家/地区的版权局(例如,美国版权局)进行注册来保护版权材料。 。您通常可以在商品详情页面上使用自己的版权图片来销售商品;但是,未经权利所有者的许可,您不应从其他来源获取图片并将其添加到商品详情页面。

注意: 当您将版权图片或版权文本添加到商品详情页面时,您便授予了亚马逊及其附属公司使用该材料的许可。有关更多信息,请参阅亚马逊服务商业解决方案协议。即使您不再销售该商品,其他卖家也可以在您已添加版权图片或文本的页面上发布相同商品进行销售。

示例: Pinzon 品牌所有者拍摄了如下毛巾照片,拥有这些毛巾图片的版权。如果某位卖家打算将这些图片复制到其他商品详情页面,用于销售自己的商品,那么该卖家可能会侵犯这些毛巾图片的权利所有者的版权。

ASIN 级别: 如果某件商品或其包装未经您的许可就使用您的版权作品(如文字或图片),那么您可以举报整个 ASIN 存在侵犯版权的行为。

卖家级别: 如果您认为某个卖家发布的特定商品侵犯了您的版权,那么您可以举报该商品存在侵权。但是,如果您只是举报某件商品,则预期对应的商品详情页面和 ASIN 仍保持有效。当您举报商品而非整个 ASIN 时,您只是提及商品存在侵权行为,而不是整个 ASIN 或商品详情页面存在侵权。提供带有效订单编号的测试购买有助于支持您的举报。

图片或文字: 如果其他卖家未经您的许可就在商品详情页面上使用了您的版权图片,那么您可以举报该图片存在侵权。但是,如果您只是举报图片或文字,则预期对应的商品详情页面和 ASIN 仍保持有效。当您举报图片或文字而非整个 ASIN 时,您只是提及此图片或文字存在侵权行为,而不是整个 ASIN 或商品详情页面存在侵权。

C.专利

专利是针对发明的一种法律保护形式。已公布的专利可授予其所有者禁止他人在固定年限内制造、使用或销售发明的权利。在美国,专利有两种主要类型: 实用新型专利和外观设计专利。实用新型专利是最常见的专利,可以针对以下方面授予:

  • 新机器

  • 制造物品

  • 物质的组成、工艺或任何这些方面的改进

  • 保护商品的结构和功能(而非其运作方式)

实用新型专利: 实用新型专利与商标的不同之处在于,它为发明(如新机器)而不是为用于识别商品来源的文字或徽标提供保护。实用新型专利与版权的不同之处在于,它不为图书或照片等创造性作品的表现内容提供保护,而是保护某种特定的发明,如新的图书印刷方法或新的相机类型。

如果亚马逊上的 ASIN 或商品侵犯了您的实用新型专利,那么您可以举报整个 ASIN。在您的通知中提供调查举报专利侵权行为的法院命令或国际贸易委员会命令会有所帮助

外观设计专利: 外观设计专利是针对商品的独有外观而授予的,但不涵盖商品的功能。在美国,外观设计专利的编号以字母“D”开头。

D.平行进口商品

权利所有者可以禁止第三方在未经其同意的情况下向欧洲经济区 (EEA) 或巴西进口他们的商品。但是,他们不能禁止转售经授权合法进口到 EEA 或巴西的商品。例如,如果一件销售商品最初合法进口到英国,然后由第三方转售给意大利买家,则不属于侵犯知识产权的平行进口商品。这也适用于土耳其境内的受版权保护的内容。

您可以举报平行进口商品存在商标或版权侵权行为,具体取决于您的知识产权。请务必指明商品(版本)是否为平行进口商品,即从未征得您的同意进口到 EEA 的商品,以及您如何确定该商品为平行进口商品。您也可以选择在商品详情页面上指定提供平行进口商品的特定卖家商品,在这种情况下,我们建议您进行测试购买,以确认卖家是否确实提供平行进口商品,或在相关卖家商品描述页面中引用特定文本。

E.公开权

公开权,通常称为人格权利,是个人控制其姓名、图片、肖像或其他身份信息在商业使用方面的权利。您不得发布侵犯他人公开权的内容,也不得在未经友好同意的情况下威逼或以其他方式恐吓他人以获得使用其公开权的许可。

如果您声称拥有公开权,则必须明确提出您的权利并提供证据来支持您的索赔,以便我们完成调查。

亚马逊不接受的通知类型

兼容性: 亚马逊不会强制施行通知,要求移除表明与商标商品兼容的真实陈述。如果商品详情页面明确且真实地声明该页面上销售的商品与商标商品兼容,则亚马逊不会对针对商标用语使用的通知采取措施。

位置: 如果您举报注册商标或专利的侵权行为,则您的注册商标或专利必须在您举报侵权行为的国家/地区进行注册。如果知识产权通知涉及的注册商标、设计或专利所在的国家/地区不是发出删除要求所针对的国家/地区,则亚马逊不会采取措施。例如,如果您在意大利注册了商标,并且要求亚马逊从美国的亚马逊商城移除相应 ASIN,那么亚马逊可能会拒绝您的通知。

最低宣传价格 (MAP) 协议: 亚马逊尊重制造商为其商品签订独家经销协议的权利。但是,违反此类协议并不构成侵犯知识产权。由于这些协议的强制施行是制造商和经销商之间的事务,因此亚马逊不会协助此类强制施行活动。

独家经销(中国、法国和阿联酋除外) - 亚马逊不会执行独家经销权,但有专门针对选择性或独家经销的法律规定的国家/地区除外。

平行进口或保修索赔(欧盟、巴西或土耳其的适用地区除外): 亚马逊仅接受平行进口商品索赔,因为它符合每个商城的监管法律。例如,如果权利所有者可以合法地对进口到欧盟的商品提出索赔要求,那么这些权利将不会扩展到美国市场。仅当权利所有者提出有效的平行进口商品索赔时,亚马逊才会评估保修索赔。

条形码所有权: 亚马逊不会强制施行条形码、UPC 或 EAN 的所有权。

举报侵权

要提交知识产权侵权通知,您必须是拥有所举报 IP 的权利所有者,或者是经权利所有者许可代表其提交通知的代理人。对于亚马逊如何处理侵权投诉的常见问题,权利所有者也可以在我们的卖家论坛中分享答案。

如果您的品牌已在亚马逊品牌注册中注册,那么您可以通过举报违规行为 (RAV) 工具或我们的举报侵权表单提交举报通知。没有在亚马逊品牌注册中注册品牌的权利所有者可以通过举报侵权表单提交举报通知。 要求通知提交者登录到亚马逊账户,以便使用任一表格提交有关侵犯商标、版权、专利或其他知识产权索赔的举报。

在举报通知中应该包含以下信息:

  • 您认为被侵权的知识产权的具体标识。商标、版权、专利、平行进口商品需包含注册号、版权作品的书面描述或链接、首次使用日期等。

  • 侵权的性质(是商品、实物商品包装、商品详情页面上的图片的侵权,还是商品详情页面上的文字侵权)。

  • 侵权商品列表(包括亚马逊商品编码 (ASIN) 和/或指定商品的商品详情页面 URL)。如果您认为只有部分卖家侵权,并且您没有指控整个商品详情页面,请点击您在举报侵权表单或 RAV 中举报的每个卖家姓名旁边的复选框。

  • 侵权卖家列表。如果侵权卖家正在发布您的 ASIN,请确保标识特定卖家,以防对整个 ASIN 进行操作。请记住,通过商品详情页面,买家可以查看亚马逊上销售的特定商品,以及所有卖家发布的该商品的共有信息,例如商品名称、品牌、图片、要点、描述、变体(如尺寸或颜色)和买家评论。这可能包括来自卖家或亚马逊的一个或多个报价。仔细检查所选卖家,确保您未举报自己的报价

  • 任何有助于亚马逊处理您的投诉的证明文件或其他其他信息(例如您对所举报商品进行的测试购买的订单编号)。

  • 您的联系详情(姓名、地址、电话号码、电子邮件地址以及我们可以与受影响的卖家分享的次要联系详情)。

请勿在每个通知中提交多种类型的知识产权侵权行为。 为了确保快速而高质量地解决您通知中提出的问题,我们只会处理您在举报侵权表单或 RAV 中选择的特定投诉类型(例如,专利、商标或版权)。以下是在通知中包含多种投诉类型的提交示例:

  • 在提交的通知中选择商标侵权并讨论版权问题。该通知仅作为商标投诉予以处理。如果您要举报商标和版权的侵权行为,请分别提交通知。

  • 在一个通知中指明两个商标号,因为对于该通知仅会考虑第一个商标号。如果您想要举报多个不同商标的侵权行为,请分别提交通知。

如果侵权投诉提交后的情况有所变化,您可以提交撤回请求。

在举报侵权时如何获取卖家编号

如果卖家的商品侵犯了您的知识产权,或者在亚马逊商城销售的商品侵犯了您的知识产权,那么您可以使用 RAV 或举报侵权表单来举报以下一项侵权行为:

  1. 针对此 ASIN(商品)的所有卖家商品信息

  2. 特定卖家的商品

如果您确定了要举报的 ASIN,卖家编号将通过举报侵权表单和 RAV 自动填入我们的系统。

如果您提供 ASIN 或 URL,RAV 和举报侵权表单将自动填充发布此 ASIN 或商品详情页面的卖家列表。在提交您的知识产权侵权举报通知时,请选择【全部卖家】或【特定卖家】选项。

提交侵权通知的结果

您将收到一条确认消息,表明我们正在审核您的侵权通知。您的通知得到处理之后,我们将向您发送一封后续邮件。

如果您的通知有效,我们会向负有责任的卖家通知您提出的索赔,并在他们有任何后续问题时与其分享您的次要联系信息。

如果您的次要联系信息不可用,我们将与卖家分享您的主要联系信息。

如果您的侵权通知得到接受,我们将移除您举报的内容并对负有责任的卖家采取适当的措施。亚马逊不会分享尚未公开的操作详情。

如果您的侵权通知被拒绝,我们将不会移除您举报的内容,也不会对卖家采取任何措施。 您会收到通知被拒绝原因的通知。您将收到一封通知,内含拒绝您的侵权通知的原因。

重要: 持续提交不准确或虚假的通知可能会导致您的提交权限被撤销。


 亚马逊官网原文详情:

Intellectual Property for Rights Owners

Note: The following information does not contain legal advice. You should consult a lawyer if you have specific questions about your IP rights or the IP rights of others.

Amazon is dedicated to ensuring that goods do not violate or infringe a Rights Owner's intellectual property (IP).

If you are a Rights Owner with a registered trademark, you may be eligible to enroll your brand in the Amazon Brand Registry.

Amazon Brand Registry provides access to powerful tools including proprietary text and image search, predictive automation based on your reports of suspected intellectual property rights violations, and increased authority over product listings with your brand name. To learn more and start the enrollment process, click here.

To learn more about intellectual property rights, please contact your local intellectual property office or attorney.

Main types of IP

A. Trademark

A trademark is a word, symbol, or design (such as a stylized brand name or logo) that a company uses to identify its goods or services and to distinguish them from other companies' goods and services. Generally, trademark laws exist to prevent customer confusion about the source of goods or services.

A trademark owner usually protects a trademark by registering it with a country-specific trademark office (such as the United States Patent and Trademark Office).In some cases, a person or company might have trademark rights based on only the use of a mark in commerce, even though the mark was never registered with a country-specific trademark office. Those rights are known as "common law" trademark rights and can be more limited.

Example: Trademarks are often displayed on Amazon’s product detail pages in the form of product and brand names listed on a product detail page. For example, the “Pinzon” by Amazon” trademark appears above the product title in the brand value portion of the product detail page shown below.

ASIN-Level: If a product or product packaging available on Amazon bears your trademark but you do not make that product, then you may report the entire ASIN, or entire product detail page, for trademark infringement.

Seller-Level: If you believe a particular offer from a Seller is listing a product that infringes your trademark, then you may report that offer as infringing. However, expect the product detail page and ASIN to remain live if you report an offer. When you report an offer, and not an entire ASIN, you are only referring to the offer for infringement, not the entire ASIN or product detail page. It is also helpful to provide a test buy with a valid Order ID to support your report.

Product Detail Page: If your trademark is being used on the product detail page, but the product being sold is not your product, you may report use of the trademark on the product detail page as infringing.

If the trademark you are report is used solely to indicate compatibility with your product, we may reject your notice.

B. Copyright

A copyright protects original works of authorship, such as videos, movies, songs, books, musicals, video games, paintings, etc. Generally, copyright law is meant to incentivize the creation of original works of authorship for the benefit of the public. To receive copyright protection, a work of authorship must be created by an author, and must have some amount of creativity. If someone is the author of an original work, then they typically own the copyright in that work.

In some countries, a copyright owner can protect its copyrighted material by registering the material with a country-specific copyright office (for example, US Copyright Office).. You can generally use your own copyrighted images on product detail pages to sell a product; however, you should not take images from other sources and add them to product detail pages without the Rights Owner's permission.

Note: When you add your copyrighted image or copyrighted text to a product detail page , you grant Amazon and its affiliates a license to use the material. For more information, see the Amazon Services Business Solutions Agreement. Other sellers can list their identical products for sale on pages to which you have added your copyrighted images or text, even if you no longer sell that product.

Example: The owner of the Pinzon brand took the photos of the towels shown below and owns the copyright of the sheets images. If a seller were to copy these images to sell their product on another product detail page, that seller could be violating the Rights Owner's copyright of the sheets images.

ASIN-Level: If a product or its packaging is using your copyrighted work, such as text or images, without your permission, then you may report the entire ASIN for copyright infringement.

Seller-Level: If you believe a particular offer from a Seller listing a product that infringes your copyright, then you may report that offer as infringing. However, expect the product detail page and ASIN to remain live if you report an offer. When you report an offer, and not an entire ASIN, you are only referring to the offer for infringement, not the entire ASIN or product detail page. It is also helpful to provide a test buy with a valid Order ID to support your report.

Image or Text: If your copyrighted image is used on a product detail page without your permission, then you may report the image as infringing. However, expect the product detail page and ASIN to remain live if you report an image or text. When you report an image or text, and not an entire ASIN, you are only referring to the image or text for infringement, not the entire ASIN or product detail page.

C. Patent

A patent is a form of legal protection for inventions. An issued patent grants its owner the right to exclude others from making, using, or selling the invention for a fixed number of years. In the United States, there are two principal types of patents: Utility patents and Design patents. Utility patents, the most common kind of patent, can be granted for the following:

  • A new machine

  • Article of manufacture

  • Composition of matter, process, or improvement to any of those

  • Protects the structure and functions of a product (rather than how it looks)

Utility: A utility patent is different from a trademark in that it protects an invention (such as a new machine) rather than a word or logo used to identify the source of the product. A utility patent is different from a copyright in that it does not protect the expressive content of a creative work like a book or a picture, but instead protects a specific invention, such as a new method of printing books or a new type of camera.

If an ASIN or product on Amazon is infringing your utility patent, then you may report the entire ASIN. It is helpful to provide a court order or an International Trade Commission order finding infringement of the reported patent with your notice

Design: Design patents are granted for the unique look of a product, but do not cover the functions of a product. In the United States, design patent numbers begin with the letter "D."

D. Parallel Imports

Rights owners may prohibit third parties from importing their goods into the European Economic Area (EEA) or Brazil without their consent. They cannot prohibit the resale of products that were legally imported into the EEA or Brazil with their authorization. For instance, the sale of a product that was originally legally imported into the UK then being re-sold by a third party to a buyer in Italy is not an IP-infringing parallel import. This is also the case for copyrighted content into Turkey.

You can report parallel imports as trademark or copyright infringement, depending on your IP. Make sure to specify whether the product (version) is a parallel import, i.e. has never been imported into the EEA with your consent and how you identified the product as being a parallel import. You may also choose to specify certain sellers listing on a product detail page that are offering parallel import goods, in which case we recommend that you make a test buy to confirm whether a seller is indeed offering parallel import goods or reference specific text in the implicated sellers product description page.

E. Right of Publicity

The right of publicity, often called personality rights, is the right of an individual to control the commercial use of his or her name, image, likeness, or other unequivocal aspects of one's identity. You cannot post content that infringes on a person’s right of publicity nor force or otherwise coerce a person without amicable agreement to allow use of their rights of publicity.

If you are claiming a right to publicity you must specifically claim your right and provide evidence to support your claim for us to complete our investigation.

Types of notices not accepted on Amazon

Compatibility: Amazon does not enforce notices seeking to remove true statements indicating compatibility with trademarked products. If a product detail page clearly and truthfully states the product being sold on that page is compatible with a trademarked product, Amazon will not take action on a notice directed to the use of the trademarked term.

Location: If you are reporting infringement of a registered trademark or patent, your registered trademark or patent must be registered in the country where you are reporting the infringement. Amazon does not take action on intellectual property notices concerning registered trademarks, designs, or patents from countries other than the country for which takedown is requested. For example, if you have a trademark registered in Italy, and you ask Amazon to remove an ASIN from Amazon in the United States, Amazon will likely reject your notice.

Minimum Advertised Price (MAP) Agreements: Amazon respects a manufacturer's right to enter into exclusive distribution agreements for its products. However, violations of such agreements do not constitute intellectual property rights infringement. As the enforcement of these agreements is a matter between the manufacturer and the resellers, Amazon does not assist in this type of enforcement activity.

Exclusive Distribution (except in China, France, and the United Arab Emirates) – Amazon does not enforce exclusive distribution rights except within the countries that have laws specifically referring to selective or exclusive distribution.

Parallel Import or Warranty claims (except where applicable in the EU, Brazil, or Turkey): Amazon only accepts parallel import claims as it conforms to each marketplace’s governing laws. For example, if a Rights Owner can legally claim rights on imports into the EU, those same rights will not extend to the US market. Warranty claims will only be evaluated when the Rights Owner has a valid Parallel Import claim.

Barcode Ownership: Amazon does not enforce ownership over barcode, UPC, or EAN.

Reporting Infringement

To submit a notice of IP infringement, you must be the Rights Owner who owns the IP being reported or an agent with permission from the Rights Owner to submit notices on his or her behalf. Rights Owners may also share answers to frequently asked questions on how Amazon handles infringement complaints in our seller forums.

If your brand is enrolled in Amazon Brand Registry, you can submit a report via the Report a Violation (RAV) tool or through our Report Infringement form. Rights Owners who do not have a brand enrolled in Amazon Brand Registry can submit via the Report Infringement form. It is a requirement that a notice submitter be logged into an Amazon account in order to use either form to submit a report for infringing trademark, copyright, patent, or other IP claim..

You should include the following information in your report:

  • Specific identification of the IP you believe is infringed. For trademark, copyright, patents, parallel import include the registration number, written description of or link to copyrighted work, first date of use, etc.

  • Nature of infringement (whether infringement occurs on the product, physical product packaging, image on the product detail page, or text on the product detail page).

  • List of infringing products (including Amazon Standard Identification Numbers (ASINs) and/or URLs for the product detail page of the specified product). If you believe that only a subset of sellers are infringing, and you are not accusing the entire product detail page, click the checkbox next to the name of each seller you are reporting in the Report Infringement form or RAV.

  • List of infringing sellers.If the infringing seller is listing on your ASIN, ensure the specific sellers are identified to safeguard against the entire ASIN being actioned. Remember that a product detail page allows customers to view a specific product available on Amazon with information common to all sellers' offers for that product, such as the product's title, brand, images, bullet points, descriptions, variations (such as size or color) and customer reviews. It can include one or more offers from both sellers or Amazon. Carefully review the selected Sellers to ensure that you are not reporting your own offer

  • Supporting documentation or any other information that will help Amazon in processing your complaint (such as order IDs for any test buys on the products you are reporting).

  • Your contact details (name, address, phone number, email address, and secondary contact details that we can share with affected sellers).

Do not submit more than one type of IP violation per notice. In order to ensure quality and quick resolution of your notices, we will only process the specific complaint type you have chosen in the Report Infringement form or RAV (such as, patent, trademark, or copyright). The following are examples of submissions that contain more than one complaint type within a notice:

  • Selecting trademark infringement and discussing copyright issues in the submission. The notice will be processed as a trademark complaint only. If you want to report infringement of a trademark and a copyright, file separate notices.

  • Indicating two trademark numbers in one notice, as only the first trademark number will be considered for that notice. If you want to report infringement of separate trademarks, file separate notices.

If circumstances have changed post-submission of your infringement complaint, you may submit a retraction.

How to obtain seller IDs when reporting infringement

If a seller's offers are infringing on your intellectual property or a product sold on Amazon is infringing your intellectual property, you can use RAV or the Report Infringement form to report one of the following:

  1. All sellers listing on the ASIN (product)

  2. Specific sellers' offers

Once you have determined what ASINs to report, the seller IDs are automatically populated in our systems by the Report Infringement form and RAV.

Both RAV and the Report Infringement form will auto-populate a list of sellers that are listing an ASIN or product detail page once you provide either an ASIN or URL. Select either ALL sellers or the Specific sellers option when submitting your report of intellectual property infringement.

Result from submitting a notice of infringement

You will receive a confirmation message that we are reviewing your notice. We will send you a follow up message once your notice has been processed.

If your notice is valid, we will inform the responsible sellers about your claim and share your secondary contact information with them should they have any follow-up questions.

If your secondary contact information is not available, then we will share your primary contact information with the seller.

If your notice of infringement is accepted, we will remove the content you reported and take appropriate action against the responsible sellers. Amazon does not share details of actions which are not already public in nature.

If your notice of infringement is rejected, we will not remove the content you reported and we will not take action on the seller.You will receive a notification with the reason for rejection of your notice.

Important: The continuous submission of inaccurate or fake notices could lead to the removal of your submission privileges.

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