卖家知识产权政策 — 关于商标的常见问题

商标是知识产权 (IP) 的一个类型,可为用于标识公司商品或服务的文字、符号和设计提供保护。

  1. 什么是商标?

    商标是指公司用来识别其商品或服务并将其与其他公司的商品和服务区分开来的文字、符号或设计,或其组合(如品牌名称或标志)。换句话说,商标表示了商品或服务的来源。一般来说,商标法旨在防止买家对商品或服务的来源产生混淆。

    示例: “亚马逊”是我们的许多商品和服务所使用的商标。其他的亚马逊商标包含图片和文字,如“Available at Amazon”商标。

  1. 商标所有者如何保护商标?

    商标所有者通常会在特定国家/地区的商标局(如美国专利商标局)进行注册来保护商标。在某些情况下,即使某标志从未在特定国家/地区的商标局注册,个人或公司也可能仅凭在商业应用中使用该标志的行为获得其商标权。这些权利称为“普通法”商标权利,可能受到更多限制。

  1. 商标法保护什么?

    一般来说,商标法保护提供商品和服务的卖家免受买家对特定商品或服务的提供商、认可方或从属方产生混淆。如果他人使用某种特定标志或易混淆的近似标志,可能导致买家对所售商品是否是商标所有者的商品产生混淆,那么商标所有者可以阻止他人使用该标志。

  1. 商标显示在详情页面的什么位置?

    商标通常以商品详情页面上发布的商品和品牌名称的形式显示在亚马逊的商品详情页面上。例如,商标“Pinzon”在品牌名称或如下所示的商品详情页面的“首行”部分中显示。“Pinzon”商标也会出现在商品详情页面的商品名称部分(“Pinzon Flannel Sheet Set – King, Sage”)。

美国专利和商标局提供了相关资源,可从中了解有关商标的更多信息。

  1. 我是否始终需要商标所有者的许可才能在创建详情页面时使用商标?

    通常来讲,如果您在创建详情页面时未经授权使用商标,则仅当这一行为可能导致商品的来源、认可或归属发生混淆时,才会构成侵权。不是商标所有者并不意味着您不能销售其他公司的商品。

    示例: 如果您正在销售正品 Pinzon 床单套装,且将商品作为 Pinzon 床单套装进行宣传,您可能不会对商品的来源或从属关系(即,Pinzon)产生混淆,若确实如此,则并未对 Pinzon 商标造成侵权。

  1. 作为卖家,我可以在什么情况下使用他人的商标来创建详情页面?

    通常,卖家可以在以下情况下使用他人的商标:

    1. 如果销售正品,卖家可以使用商标名发布这些商品。例如,发布“Pinzon”正品的卖家不一定侵犯 Pinzon 商标的所有权,因为该卖家仅使用该商标来识别正品。

    2. 使用商标文字的普通字典含义时。

    3. 真实地陈述某商品与商标商品兼容时。例如,如果卖家提供与 Kindle 电子阅读器兼容的专用线,并说明它“与 Kindle 兼容”,只要陈述真实且不造成混淆,则通常不构成商标侵权。但请注意,某些带有“类似”字眼的声明(如称商品“与 Kindle 类似”或“优于 Kindle”)违反亚马逊商品发布政策。

  1. 如何确保在亚马逊上销售商品时不违反商标法?

    如果您决定在亚马逊上销售商品,请先考虑以下问题:

    商品名称品牌商品状态
    AmazonBasics 扬声器(留空)非在售商品,由于“品牌”字段错误所致。由于“品牌”属性为空(不是“AmazonBasics”),商品名称不能暗示该商品就是 AmazonBasics 商品。
    AmazonBasics 扬声器AmazonBasics在售商品,具有正确的“品牌”字段使用方式和可接受的商品名称。
    6 英尺长 USB 充电线,与 AmazonBasics 扬声器兼容(留空)在售商品,具有可接受的商品名称和“品牌”字段使用方式。商品名称表明兼容性,但并不暗示这是 AmazonBasics 品牌商品;普通商品的“品牌”字段可以留空。
    6 英尺长 USB 充电线,与 AmazonBasics 扬声器兼容无线扬声器公司在售商品,具有正确的“品牌”字段使用方式和可接受的商品名称。
    1. 销售的商品是否来自知名的经销商?

    2. 这些商品是如何获得的?如需验货,能否证明它们为正品?

    3. 描述这些商品的方式是否会给买家造成混淆? 例如,详情页面对普通床单套装的某些描述是否会使买家认为他们购买的是 Pinzon 床单套装)?

    4. 是否以不会造成混淆且真实的方式(通常允许)而非相似的方式(不允许)使用品牌名称或商标来描述兼容性?

      下表展示了基于亚马逊商品信息政策的正确和不正确的品牌商品示例:

  1. 什么是假冒?

    假冒是商标侵权的一种特定类型。假冒是指全部或部分非法仿制注册商标或与注册商标极其类似的标志,以销售非商标持有者的商品。

    假冒需要在商品或包装上使用注册商标。注册商标可以保护商品销售的品牌名称、商品上的徽标或商品本身的形状或外观。如果商品在单独的商品详情页面上销售且未以不当方式使用注册商标,那么与注册商标商品形似或完全相同的商品便不属假冒商品。但是,如果注册商标保护的是商品本身的形状或外观,那么相同的商品即使不带有品牌名称或徽标,也可能属于假冒商品。另请注意,尽管如此,非假冒商品也可能会侵犯他人的知识产权。您有责任确保自己不发布侵权商品。如果您对自己的知识产权或他人的知识产权有疑问,应咨询律师。

    详细了解亚马逊的防伪政策。


 亚马逊官网原文详情:

Intellectual Property Policy for Sellers - FAQ about Trademarks

A trademark is a type of intellectual property (IP) that protects words, symbols, and designs used to identify a company’s goods or services.

  1. What is a trademark?

    A trademark is a word, symbol or design, or a combination of the same (such as a brand name or logo) that a company uses to identify its goods or services and to distinguish them from other companies’ goods and services. Put another way, a trademark indicates the source of goods or services. Generally, trademark laws exist to prevent customer confusion about the source of goods or services.

    Example: "Amazon" is a trademark we use for many of our goods and services. Other Amazon trademarks contain both pictures and words, such as the “Available at Amazon” trademark.

  1. How can a trademark owner protect a trademark?

    A trademark owner usually protects a trademark by registering it with a country-specific trademark office (such as the United States Patent and Trademark Office). In some cases, a person or company might have trademark rights based on only the use of a mark in commerce, even though the mark was never registered with a country-specific trademark office. Those rights are known as “common law” trademark rights and can be more limited.

  1. What does trademark law protect?

    Generally, trademark law protects sellers of goods and services from customer confusion about who provides, endorses, or is affiliated with particular goods or services. A trademark owner might be able to stop others from using a particular mark, or a confusingly similar mark, if using the mark is likely to cause a customer to be confused about whether the product being sold is the trademark owner’s product.

  1. Where are trademarks displayed on detail pages?

    Trademarks are often displayed on Amazon's product detail pages in the form of product and brand names listed on a product detail page. For example, the trademark "Pinzon" appears in the brand name or "byline" portion of the product detail page shown below. The "Pinzon" trademark also appears in the product name portion of the product detail page ("Pinzon Flannel Sheet Set – King, Sage").

The United States Patent and Trademark Office offers resources to learn more about trademarks.

  1. Do I always need the rights owner’s permission to use a trademark in the creation of a detail page?

    Usually, the unauthorized use of a trademark in the creation of a detail page is infringing only if it is likely to cause confusion as to the source, endorsement, or affiliation of the goods. Just because you are not the owner of a trademark does not necessarily mean that you cannot sell another company’s product.

    Example: If you are selling a genuine Pinzon sheet set and you are advertising the product as a Pinzon sheet set, you might not be causing confusion as to the source or affiliation of the goods (i.e., Pinzon) and, if not, are not infringing on the Pinzon trademark.

  1. As a seller, when can I use someone else’s trademark in the creation of a detail page?

    Typically, a seller can use someone else’s trademark in the following circumstances:

    1. When selling authentic goods, a seller may use a trademarked name to list those goods. For example, a seller who lists an authentic “Pinzon” product is not necessarily infringing on the owner of the Pinzon trademark because the seller is using the trademark to identify an authentic product.

    2. When using a trademarked word in its ordinary dictionary meaning.

    3. When making truthful statements that a product is compatible with a trademarked product. For example, if a seller offers a specialty cable that is compatible with the Kindle E-reader, and states that the cable is "compatible with Kindle," this generally is not trademark infringement as long as the statement is true and not confusing. Note, however, that "similar to" claims (such as stating that goods are "similar to Kindle" or "better than Kindle") are against Amazon listing policy.

  1. How can I make sure that I am not violating trademark law when selling on Amazon?

    When you decide to sell products on Amazon, ask yourself the following questions:

    Listing titleBrandStatus of listing
    AmazonBasics Speaker(blank)Inactive listing due to incorrect Brand field. Because the Brand attribute is blank (not “AmazonBasics”), the listing title cannot imply that the product is an AmazonBasics product.
    AmazonBasics SpeakerAmazonBasicsActive listing, with correct Brand field use and acceptable title.
    Six foot USB charging cable, compatible with AmazonBasics speaker(blank)Active listing, with acceptable title and Brand field use. Title indicates compatibility without implying that this is an AmazonBasics branded product; Brand field may be blank for generic product.
    Six foot USB charging cable, compatible with AmazonBasics speakerWireless Speakers Inc.Active listing, with correct Brand Field use and acceptable title.
    1. Are the goods I am selling from a reputable distributor?

    2. How did I acquire these goods, and will I be able to prove they are authentic if asked to do so?

    3. Will the way I am describing these goods confuse customers? For example, would something about your detail page for the generic sheet set cause customers to believe they are purchasing a Pinzon sheet set?

    4. Did I use a brand name or trademark in a non-confusing and truthful manner to describe compatibility (generally allowed) instead of similarity (not allowed)?

      The table below shows examples of correctly and incorrectly branded listings under Amazon listing policy:

  1. What is counterfeiting?

    Counterfeiting is a specific type of trademark infringement. A counterfeit is an unlawful total or partial reproduction of a registered trademark or a mark that is very similar to a registered trademark in connection with the sale of a product that does not come from the trademark holder.

    Counterfeiting requires the use of a registered trademark on the product or packaging. . Registered trademarks can protect the brand name the product is sold under, a logo on the product, or the shape or look of the product itself. An item that looks like or is identical to a trademarked item is not counterfeit if the item is sold on a separate product detail page and does not improperly use a registered trademark. However, in cases where a registered trademark protects the shape or appearance of a product itself, identical products may be counterfeit even if they do not feature a brand name or logo. Please also note that items that are not counterfeit may nonetheless infringe the intellectual property rights of others. You are responsible for ensuring that you do not list infringing products. You should consult a lawyer if you have a specific question about your IP rights or the IP rights of others.

    Read more about Amazon's Anti-Counterfeiting policy.

 文章来源:亚马逊官方网站