进口和出口库存

当您将业务向国外的亚马逊商城拓展时,无论您选择使用亚马逊物流 (FBA) 配送订单,还是通过第三方物流公司配送订单,都需要了解进出口流程中的卖家义务。尽管您可能倾向于自己处理部分或全部的进出口事务,但其实聘用物流服务商,例如报关行或货运代理,对您来说通常会轻松很多。这些服务商拥有专业知识和充足的时间,可以确保您的商品及时、安全地送达目的地。

提示: 如果您在国外的亚马逊商城使用亚马逊物流并且希望使用物流提供商的服务,最好在您注册亚马逊物流服务之后尽快与他们取得联系。因为完成相关材料可能需要花些时间,您一定不希望因此延误向买家配送商品。

如果您已经有合作的报关行或货运代理帮您将库存从一个国家/地区运输到另一个国家/地区,则您必须直接与他们接洽。而且,您还必须直接负责安排好确定海关登记进口商或出口商的相关工作。亚马逊无法处理此类事宜,也无法代您做出安排。

在您联系报关行或货运代理,帮您将库存从一个国家运输到另一个国家的亚马逊运营中心之前,您需要决定由谁承担哪些责任:

海关登记出口商 (EOR):

通常情况下,发货人是海关登记出口商。亚马逊不会担任海关登记出口商。您可以联系您的报关行或货运代理作为海关登记出口商。

海关登记进口商 (IOR):

海关登记进口商负责确保将货件成功进口到目标国家/地区。责任包括提交法律要求的文件和支付核定的进口关税及税金。请务必注意,亚马逊及亚马逊运营中心不会为任何亚马逊物流库存的运输担任海关登记进口商。任何试图以亚马逊作为海关登记进口商的亚马逊物流库存货件,无一例外将被拒收并退回给发货人,且相关费用由发货人承担。

非居民进口商

在有些国家,非居民(外国)海关登记进口商可以安排货物入境。要成为非居民海关登记进口商,请联系您的海关报关行或承运人以获取详细信息。

重要: 您有责任遵守所有进出口法律并确保进口商品符合适用法律和法规。如果未获得所需的所有许可和授权,您不得进口禁售商品或受限商品。例如,亚马逊可能会禁止或限制向特定国家/地区进口某些农产品、食品商品、酒类、植物和种子、鱼和野生动物商品或药物。

向货运代理人或报关行安排货件

报关行或货运代理可能会要求您填写以下表格:

  • 委托书:

您签署委托书后,即授权报关行或货运代理作为您的代理人完成库存的报关流程。

  • 注册为海关登记进口商:

在您计划进口库存的国家/地区的海关机构,注册为海关登记进口商。亚马逊及亚马逊运营中心不会为任何亚马逊物流库存的运输担任海关登记进口商。此条说明适用于任何尺寸或价值的货件,与原产地和商品本身无关。任何试图以亚马逊作为海关登记进口商的亚马逊物流货件,无一例外将被拒收并退回给发货人,且相关费用由发货人承担。

  • 条款和条件:

报关行应清楚地向您说明相关条款,以便您明白运输过程中每一阶段的货件负责人。

  • 关税、税费和运费:

亚马逊不会征收与亚马逊物流库存相关的任何关税、税费或运费,也不承担任何责任。所有货件均需采用完税后交货 (DDP) 运输条款。抵达亚马逊运营中心的任何费用到付(包括所有关税、税费或运费)的货物,都将被拒收,恕不作妥协。

  • 送达方:

在您的发货单证上,可以将亚马逊运营中心列为送达方。下面的一些示例展示了如何在发货单证上填写送达方:

示例 1示例 2
Amazon.com.kydcAmazon.com.dedc
[卖家法定名称] c/o 亚马逊物流[卖家法定名称] c/o 亚马逊物流
1850 Mercer Drive500 McCarthy
Lexington, KY 40511 USALewisberry, PA 17339 USA


最终收货人

尽管亚马逊不能作为海关登记进口商,但我们可以被列为您的发货单证上的最终收货人 - 前提条件是在亚马逊实体名称前面注明【代收】。

如果您将亚马逊列作最终收货人,您的报关行必须在运输任何库存之前通过 sellerimports@amazon.com 联系亚马逊,以获取清关所需的 EIN 或税号。


商业发票

当制造商或分销商准备好要运送的商品后,由发货人准备商业发票。保证商业发票准确无误非常重要,这可以避免清关延误。商业发票上应包含如下信息:

  • 发票日期。

  • 买家和卖家的名称及地址(商业发票上不得将亚马逊列为买家或卖家)

  • 卖家或制造商的名称以及完整地址

  • 发货人的联系人名称、公司名称、地址和税号

  • 收货地址。在这里写上“代收”,并写上您要将商品运输到的亚马逊运营中心的名称和地址。

  • 海关登记进口商。如果发货人为商品所有者,则此字段必须填写发货人名称。请不要将此信息留空,否则会导致货件被拒收或被退回。

  • 运输方式

  • 发票上货物的详细描述。包含以下内容:

    • 海关协调编码(如已知)

    • 商品数量

    • 单价

    • 每件商品的总价值。对于没有商业价值的样品或商品,为清关目的必须标注象征性价值或公允市价。

  • 交易的货币类型

  • 销售条款。请注意,正确的条款必须为完税后交货 (DDP)。发货人或使用亚马逊物流的卖家将货物交付给亚马逊运营中心之前,应该支付所有应付关税和税费并负责清关。您无权以亚马逊的名义进口货物,也无权在报关文件上将亚马逊列为申报者或海关登记进口商。

  • 货件追踪编码。对于运送到亚马逊运营中心的货件,需填写您在亚马逊卖家账户创建货件时收到的亚马逊物流货件编号。如果您发送的包裹是通过 FedEx 或 UPS 等承运人公司送达,则货件追踪编码还可以是航空运单号。

  • 所有证书

  • 运送货物的货运公司名称

  • 运费付款条件

  • 出口原因


最佳运输实践

亚马逊运营中心对于接收的货件设有相关要求,包含托拍的尺寸和运货至运营中心的卡车类型。货车荷载运输到亚马逊帮助页面提供了您向亚马逊运营中心准备货件所需的信息。了解这些要求和最佳实践,有助于避免在向亚马逊运营中心运输库存以及向买家配送的过程中出现延误。

注意: 不同的亚马逊商城对托拍的要求不同。

将货件送达亚马逊运营中心之前,请尽量将货件装入托拍。如果您在货件送至亚马逊运营中心之前事先要求采用底板载重运输方式,亚马逊运营中心将接受该运输方式。但如果采用底板载重运输方式的货件需进行额外处理,则可能会收取额外费用。

确保您的货件符合亚马逊入库货件政策。如果亚马逊拒绝接受您的货物,您有责任将您的货物搬离运营中心。如果货物是少于半个托拍的散货,而且每件重量不足 15 公斤,建议最好采用快递服务运送您的商品。由于不同的快递公司提供的服务也不一样,您可能会根据目的国选择快递公司。如果您决定通过快递公司将您的商品运送到运营中心,则需要向快递公司确认,他们是否能够根据您提供的商业发票在海关为货物清关。如果他们不能根据商业发票为货物清关,则您可能需要联系报关行。

物流公司

许多线上资源可以帮助卖家查询费率并使商品配送更为便捷。以下是部分卖家认为有用的几家公司链接。直接访问他们的网站,以计算为要开店的亚马逊商城配送订单所产生的大概运费:

  • DHL:www.dhl.com

  • Expeditors International:www.expeditors.com

  • FedEx:www.fedex.com

  • Samuel Shapiro:www.shapiro.com

  • UPS:www.ups.com

我们建议您在配送任何商品之前联系货运代理人或快递公司,以了解其收费和要求。

退仓

目前,亚马逊还无法将储存在亚马逊运营中心的商品退回至原进口国以外的地区。此外,亚马逊物流服务目前也不支持卖家在亚马逊运营中心取货。如果您希望将亚马逊物流库存退回给您,则必须在创建移除订单表中提供进口国家/地区的退货地址。


亚马逊官网原文详情:   

Importing and exporting inventory

When you expand your business to an Amazon marketplace outside your home country and fulfill with Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) or a third-party fulfillment provider, you'll need to understand your obligations in the import/export process. Although you may want to handle some or all of these import/export steps yourself, it can be easier to hire a logistics provider such as a customs broker or a freight forwarder to handle the process for you. These providers may have the expertise and the time to make sure your inventory moves from one place to another in a timely and secure manner.

Tip: If you use FBA in an Amazon marketplace outside your home country and you wish to use the services of a logistics provider, the best practice is to contact one as soon as you sign up for FBA. The process for completing the necessary paperwork can take some time, and you do not want the process to delay getting your products into customers' hands.

If you engage the services of a customs broker or a freight forwarder to help you move inventory from one country to another, you must engage them directly. You must also directly make the arrangements for establishing the importer or exporter of record. Amazon cannot act in that capacity or make these arrangements for you.

Before you engage a customs broker or freight forwarder to help you move your inventory from one country to a fulfillment center in another country, you will need to decide who will take on certain responsibilities:

Exporter of record (EOR):

Generally, the shipper is the exporter of record. Amazon will not act as the exporter of record. You may be able to contract with your customs broker or freight forwarder to act as the EOR.

Importer of record (IOR):

The importer of record is responsible for ensuring that the shipment is successfully imported into the destination country. Responsibilities include filing legally required documents and paying assessed import duties and taxes. It is important to note that Amazon, including the fulfillment centers, will not serve as the importer of record for any shipment of FBA inventory. Any FBA inventory shipment attempting to make entry with Amazon as the IOR will be refused and returned at the shipper's expense—no exceptions.

Nonresident importers

In some countries, a nonresident (foreign) IOR can arrange entry of goods. To become a nonresident IOR, please contact your customs broker or carrier for details.

Important: It is your responsibility to comply with all import and export laws and to ensure the imported goods comply with applicable laws and regulations. You may not import prohibited or restricted products without all required permits and authorizations. For example, the import of certain agricultural, food products, alcohol, plants and seeds, fish and wildlife products, or medication into certain countries may be prohibited or restricted.

Arrange shipment with a customs broker or freight forwarder

A customs broker or freight forwarder may require you to complete the following forms:

Power of Attorney:

When you sign a Power of Attorney, the customs broker or freight forwarder is authorized to act as your agent to get your inventory moved through the customs process.

Importer of Record registration:

Register as an IOR with customs authorities in the country where you are importing inventory. Amazon, including our fulfillment centers, will not serve as an IOR for any shipment of FBA inventory. This applies to shipments of any size or value, regardless of origin and product. Any FBA shipment attempting to make entry with Amazon as the IOR will be refused and returned at the shipper's expense—no exceptions.

Terms and conditions:

The customs broker should spell out terms for you to help you understand who is responsible for the goods at every step of the shipment process.

Duties, taxes, and shipping costs:

Amazon will not be responsible for or collect any duties, taxes, or shipping costs associated with FBA inventory. All shipments are required to use Delivered Duty Paid (DDP) shipping terms. Any shipment arriving at an Amazon fulfillment center with collect charges, including any duties, taxes, or shipping costs, will be refused without further concession.

Deliver-to party:

An Amazon fulfillment center may be listed as the deliver-to party on your shipping documentation. Here are some examples of how this should appear on the shipping documentation:

Example 1Example 2
Amazon.com.kydcAmazon.com.dedc
[Seller Legal Name] c/o FBA[Seller Legal Name] c/o FBA
1850 Mercer Drive500 McCarthy
Lexington, KY 40511 USALewisberry, PA 17339 USA


Ultimate consignee

Although Amazon will not serve as Importer of Record, it may be listed as ultimate consignee on your shipping documentation—but only if in care of is listed before the name of the Amazon entity.

If you list Amazon as the ultimate consignee, your customs broker must contact Amazon at sellerimports@amazon.com in advance of shipping any inventory to obtain the EIN or Tax ID # required for customs clearance.


Commercial invoice

When your products are ready for shipment from the manufacturer or distributor, the shipper prepares the commercial invoice. It's critical that the commercial invoice be accurate to avoid delays clearing customs. The following information should be included on the commercial invoice:

  • The date of the invoice.

  • The names of the buyer and seller, including addresses (Amazon should not be shown as the buyer or the seller on the commercial invoice)

  • The name and complete address of the seller or manufacturer

  • The shipper's contact name, company name, address, and tax ID number

  • The ship-to address. Here, enter "In care of," and then the name and address of the Amazon fulfillment center where you are shipping the products.

  • Importer of Record. This field must contain the shipper's name, if the same as the owner of the products. Do not leave this information blank; this will result in the shipment being refused and returned.

  • Shipment method

  • Detailed description of the goods being invoiced. Include the following:

    • Customs Harmonized Codes, if known

    • Number of units

    • Unit values

    • Total value of each product. For samples or products with no commercial value, a nominal or fair-market value must be stated for customs purposes.

  • The type of currency of the transaction

  • The terms of the sale. Note that correct terms must be Delivered Duty Paid (DDP). The shipper or FBA seller should pay all applicable duty and taxes and be responsible for clearing customs before delivery to the Amazon fulfillment center. You are not authorized to import goods in the name of Amazon or to show Amazon as the declarant or importer of record on the customs entry documentation.

  • Shipment tracking number. For shipments to Amazon fulfillment centers, include the Amazon FBA Shipment ID that you receive when you create the shipment in your Amazon seller account. The shipment tracking number can also be an air waybill number if you are sending the package via a carrier service such as FedEx or UPS.

  • Any certifications

  • Name of the carrier transporting the goods

  • Freight payment terms

  • Reason for export


Shipping best practices

Amazon fulfillment centers have requirements for the shipments they receive, including the size of the pallets and the type of truck that can deliver to the fulfillment center. The Truckload delivery to Amazon help page provides the information you need for preparing your shipment to an Amazon fulfillment center. Paying attention to these requirements and best practices will help avoid delays in getting your inventory to the fulfillment center and into your customers' hands.

Note: Pallet differences exist between Amazon marketplaces.

Arrange to have your shipments palletized before they arrive at the fulfillment center whenever possible. Amazon's fulfillment centers will accept floor-loaded shipments but only if you request it in advance when you set up your shipment to the fulfillment center. Additional charges may apply if the floor-loaded shipment requires extensive handling.

Make sure that your shipments comply with Amazon's policies regarding inbound shipments. If Amazon refuses to accept your shipments, you are responsible for removing the shipment from the fulfillment center. For shipments that are less than a half pallet of loose cartons, each of which weighing less than 15 kilograms, you may find it better to ship your products through a courier service. The carrier you use may depend on the destination country because carrier services vary. If you do choose to ship your inventory to a fulfillment center via a carrier service, you should check with the carrier to verify that it can clear your goods through customs based on the commercial invoice you provide. If the carrier cannot clear your goods based on the commercial invoice, then you may need to contact a customs broker.

Logistics companies

There are many online resources that can help sellers determine rates and that can make shipping easier. The following are links to some companies some sellers have found useful. Visit their websites directly to calculate the approximate shipping charges you can expect when fulfilling orders for the Amazon marketplaces in which you would like to list:

  • DHL: www.dhl.com

  • Expeditors International: www.expeditors.com

  • FedEx: www.fedex.com

  • Samuel Shapiro: www.shapiro.com

  • UPS: www.ups.com

We suggest you contact your freight forwarder or courier in advance of shipping any inventory to understand its fees and requirements.

Return of imports

Amazon is unable to return inventory stored in Amazon's fulfillment centers to an address outside of the original import country. Further, FBA does not support pick-up options for sellers at Amazon fulfillment centers. If you wish to have FBA inventory returned to you, you must supply a return address in the country of import in the Create Removal Order form.


文章来源:亚马逊官方网站